The average annual water availability of any region or country is largely dependent upon hydro-meteorological and geological factors and such water resources data is assessed basin-wise. The water availability per person is dependent on population of the country which is reducing due to increase in population.
Also, due to high temporal and spatial variation of precipitation, some regions of the country may be facing water stress conditions. The average annual per capita water availability in the year 2011 has been assessed as 1545 cubic meters.
Further, based on the study of “Reassessment of Water Availability in India using Space Inputs” (CWC, 2019), the average annual per capita water availability has been assessed as 1486 cubic meters and 1367 cubic meters for year 2021 and 2031 respectively. Annual per-capita water availability of less than 1700 cubic meters is considered as water stressed condition.
Further, ground water is a replenishable resource which gets recharged through rainfall and other sources periodically. In some places annual ground water withdrawal is more than the annual replenishable resource, which results in ‘overexploitation’ of ground water resource and its consequent depletion. However, over-exploitation is a reversible process and can be controlled through judicious and holistic management of water.
Major cities of the country adopting proper water management measures will not run out of ground water by 2030, since ground water is a replenishable resource and gets recharged through rain from time to time. Hence, the replenishment will be always there due to occurrence of rainfall. Further, beneath replenishable (Dynamic) ground water resources, there exists In-storage (Static) ground water resources which have accumulated over time.
Water being a state subject, steps for augmentation, conservation and efficient management of water resources are primarily undertaken by the respective State Governments. In order to supplement the efforts of the State Governments, Central Government provides technical and financial assistance to them through various schemes and programmes.
This information was given by the Minister of State for Jal Shakti, Shri Bishweswar Tudu in a written reply in Rajya Sabha.